Full Project – ATTITUDE OF TEACHERS TOWARDS ICT USAGE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH IN AGEGE LGA, LAGOS STATE
Background to the Study
English language is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. In the current era, information spreads rapidly and this makes it easy to access the information. Development of information technologies surely has a great contribution on this. Information technologies making a rapid progress especially at the end of twentieth century started to assert itself in educational field in addition to all fields (Sahin & Akeay, 2011). Integration of technology with lectures has become inevitable for effective training. It became important for educators to use information technologies whose effects started to be seen especially on educational training activities applied in educational environment and structure of educational system, effectively. In this respect, it is important for educators to adopt technology, to follow closely and to exhibit a positive attitude towards the use of technology in the classroom. Therefore, to reveal the attitudes of educators towards educational technologies in education is important and necessary in terms of ensuring required conditions for efficient use of new technologies in education (Pala, 2006).
A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally, the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family (homeschooling), rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker, pastor). In most countries, formal teaching of students is usually carried out by paid professional teachers.
Gender refers to the characteristics of being either a man or woman, as members of a social group. Similarly, Lewey (2004) conceived gender as a state or characteristics of being either masculine or feminine in nature. It is a socio-psychological concept used to describe the culture and social roles different societies of the world ascribe to male and female folks to depict the differences between them. The anatomical differences are apparent at once. Given the opportunity, a woman can succeed in most activities as well as a man (Llewellyn-Jones, 2005). He added that although a woman tends to have less developed muscles than a man, she can equal him in physical and mental stamina and is able to perform jobs which have been reserved for men in the past. Elumelu (2009) in a study on the reading attitudes of college of education students observed that there were no significant differences between the reading attitudes of male and female students. Conversely, Idorenyin and Monday (2007) observed that at high school level, boys score higher than girls in Mathematics, Science and Social Sciences, while girls performed better than boys in reading, writing, music and literature. But some scholars and researchers like Agbaje (2004) and Amadi (2010) have nevertheless argued that gender cannot be regarded as a serious determining factor to effective and efficient teaching in the classroom.
Fortunari argue that the application of ICT in class helps teachers to arouse student’s motivation and interest to improve their English skills achievement. Many researches showed that the use of ICT plays a decisive role in the teaching and learning activities. Moreover, Rahimi, Ebrahimi and Eskandari (2013) opined that the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has enhanced English teaching. Numerous studies have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of learning by using internet technology. Today, the internet which can be access by millions of computers has an important role in the education world. Internet is also applied widely in English language learning around the world. The use of internet in teaching English as a foreign language has many benefits (Aydin, 2007). In other words, the application of ICT like internet facilitates teacher’s ability to teach course material in the classroom. Internet helps teachers to access various websites that provide a wide range of subject matter in accordance with the objectives of the curriculum.
The use of ICT plays a necessary role in education (Zarghami, 2016). The application of ICT in the classroom enables teachers to teach lessons with authentic materials so that learning process in the classroom will be more of attractive and full of fun. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) helps teachers improve the quality of the learning process. They depend on no textbook, because ICT provides teachers with audio recordings, films and learning materials to promote the students’ learning achievement. In addition, ICT enables teachers to search for teaching materials related to the subject matter. Advancement of ICT has changed all aspects of human life. It has a medium and as a source of learning has influenced education as a means of science and technology development. Therefore, teachers should understand and implement the ICT which has brought a change in the paradigm of education (Labbas & Shaban, 2013). According to Sudiran (2011), there are some models to use internet as learning in English media at schools. The presence of the internet in education brings a great advantage in the learning process. Not only does internet serve as a source of information but it also improves students’ motivation in class. It is important for teachers to use it as a source of information to support their career.
Nigeria like other developing countries is still in the early stage of integrating ICT in teaching and learning process in the education sector. Though it is limited by a number of barriers, there are many factors influencing the use of ICT to make teaching and learning effective in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The use of ICT in the classroom teaching and learning is very important for it provides opportunities for teachers and students to operate, store, retrieve information, encourage independent and active learning and self-responsibility for learning such as distance learning, motivate teachers and students to continue using learning outside school hours. It also helps teachers plan to prepare lessons and design materials such as course content delivery, instructional material and facilitate sharing of resources and advice. This versatile instrument has the capability not only of engaging students in instructional activities to increase their learning but of helping them to solve complex problems to enhance their cognitive skills (Jonnasem & Reeves, 1996).
The purpose of this project is to share with teachers in public schools the findings of the study conducted to investigate the level of Ict usage among English teachers for teaching in secondary school in Agege. Also, this study seeks to investigate the attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT for education purposes. An overview of the research in the value of using ICTs in teaching and learning process proved that the utilization of ICT has had a major influence on the teaching and learning process. In other words, ICTs has proved to be an effective tools for educational purpose, although it has extend and transformed the way students learn and teachers teach. The literature on attitudes is abundant in sociolinguistics but scarcer in the specific area of teachers’ attitudes towards learning and teaching. In recent years, there have been ever increasing number of studies into the possible reasons for the lack of impact of ICT in improving educational results (Somekh, 2004), the different aspects which could be influential such as self-efficiency of teacher’s own computer skills (Paraskeva, Bouta & Papagianni, 2008).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) includes computers, the internet, and electronics delivery systems such as radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and is widely used in today’s education field. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide range of computer activities, while the home serves as a complementary site for regular engagement in a narrower set of computer activities. Increasingly, ICT is being applied successfully in instruction, learning, and assessment. ICT is considered a powerful tool for educational change and reform. A number of previous studies have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and connect learning to real-life situations (Lowther, et al. 2008; Weert & Tatnall 2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is an ongoing lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches. As time goes by, they will have to expect and be willing to seek out new sources of knowledge. Skills in using ICT will be an indispensable prerequisite for these learners. ICT tends to expand access to education. Through ICT, learning can occur any time and anywhere. Online course materials, for example, can be accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Teleconferencing classrooms allow both learner and teacher to interact simultaneously with ease and convenience.
Based on ICT, learning and teaching no longer depend exclusively on printed materials. Multiple resources are abundant on the Internet, and knowledge can be acquired through video clips, audio sounds, visual presentation and so on. Current research has indicated that ICT assists in transforming a teaching environment into a learner-centered one (Castro Sánchez & Alemán, 2011). Since learners are actively involved in the learning processes in ICT classrooms, they are authorized by the teacher to make decisions, plans, and so forth (Lu, Hou & Huang 2010). ICT therefore provides both learners and instructors with more educational affordances and possibilities
Statement of the Problem
There have been policies on the use of ICT for basic education in Nigeria and so many projects on the use of computer in government Secondary Schools in Nigeria, but unfortunately, the project did not really take off beyond the distribution and installation of personal computers (Okebukola, 1997; cited by Aduwa Ogiegbean & Iyamu, 2005). Okebukola (1997) then concludes that the computer is not part of classroom technology in more than 90 percent of Nigeria public schools. This implies that the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities in most Nigeria Secondary Schools. Okwudishu (2005) discovered that unavailability of some ICT components in schools hampers teachers’ use of ICT. Lack of adequate search skills and of access points in the schools were reported as factors inhibiting the use of the internet by Secondary Schools (Kaku, 2005).The results of studies suggest benefiting modern and up-to-date technologies such as computer and the internet in classrooms makes its possible for students to learn with greater speed and higher efficiency and fell satisfied by attending the classroom. Therefore, teachers needed to know much about new technologies and media and treat them with a positive attitude.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching English Language in Agege, Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought to:
- find out ICT availability for teaching English Language in Agege, Lagos State.
- find out the attitude of English Language teachers towards the use of ICT for teaching.
- determine the difference in teachers’ use of ICT for teaching English Language based on their gender.
- ascertain difference in teachers’ use of ICT for teaching English Language based on their qualification.
- find out the difference in teachers’ use of ICT for teaching English Language based on their of experience.
The following research questions were put forward to guide the conduct of this study:
- Are ICT gadget available in Secondary Schools in Lagos State for teaching English Language?
- What are teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English language in Lagos State?
- What are the gender difference in the use of ICT for teaching English language in Lagos State?
- What are the differences in the qualification of teachers in using ICT gadget for teaching English Language?
- What are the years of experience of teachers in the use of ICT for teaching English Language?
The following research hypotheses were analyzed based on the purposes of the study and research questions:
H01 There is no significant difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English Language based on gender.
H02 There is no significant difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English Language based on qualification.
H03 There is no significant difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English Language based on years of teaching experience.
Scope of the Study
Basically, this study focuses attention on the Teachers Attitude towards the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for teaching English Language in Agege, Lagos State.
The population of the study covered the English Language teachers in both public and private schools in Agege, Lagos State. The analytical focus of the study had a researcher-designed questionnaire on method, techniques, limitation on the use, benefit and advantages alongside with the disadvantages of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by English teachers in Senior Secondary Schools and the attitude of teachers towards Ict usage (both positive and negative).
Operational Definition of Terms
Teacher: A teacher is a person who is trained to teach especially in a classroom setting. It is a person whose occupation is teaching.
Attitude: A complex mental state involving beliefs, feelings, values and dispositions to act in certain ways.
Toward: In relation to something.
Use: To put into service; make work for a purpose or use as designed.
ICT: Information and Communication Technology is an electronic means of capturing, processing, storing, communicating information.
English Language: An Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and most of the commonwealth countries.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study are anticipated to be of great benefit to the following stakeholders in education: students, teachers, school administrators, the ministry of education, policy makers on education, parents and future researchers.
The finding could be of help to the field of education as it will expand the ICT knowledge and effective ICT usage of English language teachers. It will make abstract content of English Language to become real or concretized thereby making teaching to be effective. English language teachers would be sensitized in reviewing the techniques used in teaching English Language during the planning, the actual teaching and post teaching stages. It will also create awareness among teachers of English language on the importance of ICT as a teaching tool and changes their attitude and practice toward improving their ICT base. The result of this study would be of great help to teachers because once ICT is introduce into classroom teaching of English Language, it will save time, energy, reduce stress and enhance the effective teaching of English Language.
Moreover the finding may serve as reference points for educational stakeholders in other parts of the world that would lead to improvement of provisions of education among Secondary School Teachers and it will also add new knowledge to the existing literature in Nigeria since there are little ICT related researches, as such future researchers will benefit immensely.
The study will help policy makers in enacting laws that will mandate English teachers to use ICT gadget or tools in teaching English language in schools in other to be able to meet up with the world standard just like the native speakers.
It will also help school administrators to plan to improve their schools by providing ICT for their teachers for effective teaching and learning because most parents this days are in search of schools where their children would have quality education and learn about their environment and beyond and also be able to compete with children from other schools and even other parts of the world.
This study would also be of help to students by providing anxiety in them to desire schools where they can learn more about ICT as it will prepare them for their future career in the sense that no career exist outside ICT. Every profession all over the world requires the use of ICT. Most companies can not employ anyone that does not have ICT knowledge.
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This is a premium project material and the complete research project plus questionnaires and references can be gotten at an affordable rate of N3,000 for Nigerian clients and $8 for International clients.
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