PROJECT TOPIC – CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Examination has been generally accepted as the best means of assessment. It is a formal test of knowledge or ability. Infact, in a school setting, examination is a means of evaluating the quantity of knowledge a student has acquired within a specific period of time. Adekunle (2003) sees examination as an instrument used for the assessment of individual skills and knowledge-content, both in general and specific area of study. Additionally, common observations in the state shows that examination malpractices occur mostly in higher Institutions. Examination malpractices occur in both internal and external examination which is almost a routine to cheat in these examinations.
Teaching and learning become more effective when the students are subjected to an examination process to determine the extent to which the students have assimilated the content of the instruction given and the lecturer can also assess himself from the performance of the students. In essence, examinations are used to determine pass or fail of a student or group of students in the opinion. History seems to support the view that setting children against one another in trials and competitions has always been a respectable means of inciting them of deal’’. A student who knows that he might fall on examination which will in turn determine his progress or promotion will strive hard in order to pass. This once more encourages kind of competition within groups of students who will dim at nigh position in their classes.
Examinations are also used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students. For decade, the West Africa Examination Council awards results on the basis of some stratification’s and three. The contemporary practice of (N.C.E). Students are stratified into distinction, credit merit and pass, while in the university also, students are stratified into first, second (upper and lower) or third class degrees having gone through an examination. These grades are a measure of success and prestige. A child with a division one pass in school certificate examination will be regarded by those around him as academically precocious. He is also likely to have a place in the institution of higher learning or in job situation within the society easier than a child with a division three pass. All these conditions have combined to influence a child’s attitude to an examination; attitude which always colonnade in an urge for success in any particular examination whether or not he had prepared for it. These competitions in school have their parallel in the society.
Unfortunately, this all important means of assessing students has become ineffective as all forms of malpractice have been introduced into the system. Adesina (2000) traced the history of examination malpractice in Nigeria to 1914. When there was a leakage of the Cambridge examination. Cheating became widespread in schools hence in 1967, the Alexander Commission was set up as a special commission of inquiry to investigate the incidences of malpractice in Nigeria.
In 1977, there was a widespread leakage of the West Africa School Certificate Examination questions. Government took it as a challenge to address issues of examination malpractice. A special conference was held in that regard at Ibadan in 1986. Decrees were promulgated, schools were sanctioned, results cancelled and invigilators arrested all in a bid to curb malpractice.
The irony of it all is that despite the several attempts made by school authorities, government agencies, parents and church leaders in trying to concentise the Nigerian students on the evils of examination malpractice, this menace is still in its increase in the various schools. There is the need to find out the causes and solutions of examination malpractice in Nigerian schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the background given to this study, it could be seen that examination plays an important role in our educational system as well as the society we live in but hones examinations are hard to find nowadays. Malpractices in examinations have been reported since 1914 when there was a leakage or question papers in the senior Cambridge local examination. Ever since, there have been cases of irregularities reported on a yearly basis. The statement of the problem therefore Causes and effects of Examination Malpractices in higher Institutions of learning.
In order to be able to effectively investigate the main problems as stated above the following sub problems are to be investigated.
- What are the examination malpractices in Higher institutions in Yaba Local Government of Lagos State?
- What are the different factors involve in examination malpractices in Higher institutions in Yaba Local Government of Lagos State?
- What Conditions Sustain Examination Malpractice in Nigeria?
- What are the Dangers and Consequences of Examination Malpractices?
- What effects has examination malpractices on the students, the school and the society in general?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Examination malpractices have been on the increase since 1963’s, these malpractices indulgent learn new tactics or methods of the crime. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate into some important expects of examination malpractice’s. This study will help specifically to find out:
- The reasons why students cheat at examinations.
- The method at student use in cheating at examination.
- The extent of the involvement of the society, lecturers, parents
and the students on the malpractices.
- The effect of examination malpractice’s on the students, the school and the society at large.
- The different factors involve in examination malpractices in Higher institutions in Yaba Local Government of Lagos State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
On the basis of the problems, the following Research Questions were formulated:
- What causes examination malpractice in schools?
- What subjects are students likely to cheat in and why?
- How can examination malpractice be stopped?
- What strategies can be adopted to stop exam malpractice in schools?
- Are students unserious attitude towards studying hard enough are most likely to cause cheating in an examination?
- Is there relationship between student’s strong desire to succeed and violating examination norms?
- SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will be significant in the following ways:
- It will be of immense benefit to all stakeholders in the educational circle.
- It is hoped that at the end of this study, the finding of the study will be very useful to Educators, students and the society at large in eliminating the barriers on Examination malpractice.
- The findings of this study will help expose the extent to which students, parents and lecturers are involved in examination malpractices.
- It is also hoped that the findings of this study will help to provide a remedy or a lasting solution to examination malpractices.
- It is expected that the research findings, will guide educators who can suggest ways of eliminating the sources of examination malpractices.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study covered Causes and effects of Examination Malpractices in higher Institutions of learning. And all the secondary lecturers and students in higher institutions in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos State were used for the study.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to investigation of the Causes and solutions of Examination Malpractice in Selected Secondary School in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos State as a case study of this research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Assessment: Are the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development.
Examination: Examinations are used to determine pass or fail of a student or group of students in the opinion. Examinations are also used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students.
Malpractice: malpractice is an “instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional”. Types include: medical malpractice (“A doctor’s failure to exercise the degree of care and skill that a physician or surgeon of the same medical specialty would use under similar circumstances.
Teaching: It can be defined by many scholars of education as “the promotion of learning”. Teaching is the art of impacting knowledge.
Learning: It can be defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught. Is the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.
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PROJECT TOPIC – CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN NIGERIA