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1.1 Background to the Study
Family background is a collective terminology comprising of social class/status, economic status, family size, family structure, parents’ educational level, occupation and other factors pertaining to family life. Family background in the context of this study refers to family structure, parents’ occupation and parents’ level of education. Child development can be understood as the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional maturation of human beings from conception to adulthood, a process that is influenced by interacting biological and environmental processes. The family arguably has the most profound impact on social and emotional development (Egbunonu and Ugbaja, 2011).

The education that children receive is very much dependent on the education that their parents received when they were children. Research shows that the literacy of their parents strongly affects the education of their children (Sclafani, 2007). Children experience literacy primarily as a social process during their preschool years. Parents strongly affect the social learning process because they are the biggest influence at this early stage in their children’s lives (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2011). Parenting behaviour and the home environment appear to have a strong effect on children’s educational readiness at school entry.

Moreover, children are more likely to have trusting relationships with caregivers who are consistent and nurturing, which leads to a number of positive developmental outcomes. The research suggests that positive and consistent caregiving has the potential to compensate for factors that have a deleterious impact on children and its associated risk factors (Downes and Fatouros, 2009). In other words, children have much better outcomes if their family lives are stable, despite the overwhelming influence of poverty and associated risk factors. Research has also documented that stability in the family unit promotes positive outcomes for children within particular developmental periods (Downes and Fatouros, 2009).

Therefore, children in stable family backgrounds are likely to experience positive, engaged parenting and to have positive developmental outcomes. By contrast, children in foster care have often experienced family instability and other types of maltreatment that compromise their healthy development. However, providing safe, stable, and nurturing homes for these children may lessen the harmful effects of their experiences by exposing them to protective factors that can promote resilience (Brooker, 2003).

Bumpass (2009) indicated that relationship has aroused considerable concern among policymakers and scholars. Especially in light of recent projections that half of all children born in the last decade will spend some time living in a single-parent family before reaching age 18. Education is a key factor which determines long-time economic success, and the association between family disruption and tower educational attainment raises the question of the sharp increase in a family instability during the past two decades will have lasting negative consequences on educational attainment of next generation.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is unfortunate that less educated family are less likely to be involved in their children’s education process because research repeatedly demonstrates that schools and school districts do better when parents are engaged as equal partners in the decision making that affects their children and their school.

Parents with less education do not participate as often in their children’s education to some effect because they do not realize the importance of their interaction with schools and they are probably intimidated, just like they were in high school. Through parents “ even low-income and culturally and linguistically diverse parents “ possess the attitudes and at least the sufficient early literacy skills and knowledge to help their children get on the road to literacy.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of family background on social and emotional development in Lagos- Mainland, Lagos. The general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
i. To determine the significant effect of family income on childhood development.
ii. To examine the effect of child development on the academic performance of children in childhood development.
iii. To examine the perceived advantages of family culture in early childhood Education.
iv. To find out the problem of poor family background on childhood development.
v. To examine the behaviours of children from negative and positive family background
1.4 Research Questions
In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:
The study seeks to be guided by the following research questions:
i. How effective is family income on childhood development?
ii. To what extent will child development affect the academic performance of children?
iii. What are the perceived advantages of family culture in early childhood Education?
iv. What are the problems of poor family background on child development?
v. To what extent will behaviours influence children from negative and positive family background?

1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant difference between family background and child development.
H1: There is significant difference between family background and child development.

1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study lies in the hope that the findings may be of benefit to:
– The Ministry of education where the study may be used to understand the effect of family background in early childhood classroom.
– Again, it will enable both public and private schools to be able to plan systematically for effective contribution in early childhood education. Other stakeholders of education (parents, students, lecturers, support staff, donors, will use the study as a checkpoint to act as a safeguard against any future happenings of the same nature.
– The study helps academics to reduce or carefully monitored children exposure to negative environment which could be detrimental to their mind to avoid anti-social development or behaviour.
– Lastly, it will assist other researchers who might want to conduct similarly study.

1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the influence of family background on social and emotional development in Lagos-Mainland, Lagos using parents of private pre-schools in Local Education District IV, Yaba, Lagos as case study.
1.8 Operational Definitions Of Terms
Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:
Early Childhood Education: Education given to children from birth to the age of about eight years.
Infant/Toddler Education: This is a subset of early childhood education which denote the education of children from birth to age two
Classroom: This a room in which a class of pupils or students is taught.
Childhood: Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
Education: Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, culture, and habits.
Family culture: Family culture is the unique way that a family forms itself in terms of rules, roles, habits, activities, culture, and other areas.
Family Values: These are values supposedly learned within a traditional family unit, typically those of high moral standards and discipline.
School Readiness: School readiness refers to skills children need to profit from the educational experiences of formal schooling.

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