Full Project – Effect of food poisoning on Customers patronage in catering establishment

Full Project – Effect of food poisoning on Customers patronage in catering establishment

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1.0                                           Introduction

Certain bacterial agents have been implicated in outbreaks of food poisoning on the basis of presumptive and inconclusive evidence.1 Year after year some of these same agents are reported in the literature without additional proof as to their etiological significance.  (Roberts, 2015) Food is essential to life but if contaminated can cause illness and even death. Fortunately, the latter only happens in a minority of cases, although the morbidity associated with the millions of cases of food related illness worldwide has significant social and economic consequences. Food borne illness can occur from any fresh or processed foods consumed in a range of settings such as homes, restaurants, large catering establishments, schools and institutions. Most cases of food borne illness can be avoided through proper hygiene and appropriate food handling practices. This program explores food poisoning, its causes, and the best methods for prevention. There are many ways that food poisoning can occur and being aware of the causes is an important step to prevention. Understanding that there are different types of food poisoning can increase our awareness of the safety issues concerning the purchase and use of food. A range of terms including food poisoning, foodborne illness and foodborne disease are encountered in the literature and can cause confusion. Food that contains a toxin, chemical or infectious agent (like a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion) and causes symptoms in the body are considered types of food poisoning by most investigators.Those symptoms may be related only to the gastrointestinal tract causing vomiting or diarrhea or may involve other organs such as the kidney, brain or muscle.

(Charles, 2011) As a result many misconceptions have arisen in textbooks and scientific journals regarding the role of such agents in food poisoning. It is the purpose of this paper to point out some of the problems in this field and to illustrate with a few examples some of the difficulties in assigning significance to these organisms. Many kinds of microorganisms have been alleged to cause food poisoning merely because they have been found in large numbers in implicated foods, or in the vomitus or stools of patients. Some of these bacteria are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract of healthy persons and there is no reason other than the circumstantial evidence cited for assigning them causative in food poisoning.

(Katon and Chessbrought 2000). Joffe, et al., (2002) pointed out that harmful bacteria are the most common cause of food borne illness or food poisoning.Food poisoning can cause symptoms which include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and dehydration. Most food borne infections are undiagnosed and unreported, though the center for disease control and prevention estimates that every year, about 76 million people in the United States become ill from pathogens or disease causing substance in food. Recently several species of microorganisms such as Para colon bacilli,” Salmonella pullodum, 6 Proteus mirabilis, 7 Clostridium perfringens, 8 and hemolytic streptococci9 have been implicated as possible causative agents of food poisoning. All of these microorganisms when grown in suitable media produce substances which are toxic for animals by the parenteral route. This property of culture filtrates of various microorganisms to produce diarrhea and vomiting in animals by the parenteral route has frequently given rise to difficulty in the identification of enterotoxin material. In distinction to the above, a true enterotoxin is toxic when fed in adequate amounts to suitable animals. They may also be toxic by the parenteral route. Since many of the above microorganisms have been implicated from time to time over a period of years, it is imperative that their role in the etiology of food poisoning be established. A positive solution to the problem would involve the feeding- of cultures and filtrates to human volunteers. Obviously this procedure is not to be recommended, since in, the case of many members of the group of Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, their pathogenicity is unknown. Furthermore, in food poisoning outbreaks caused by certain well established salmonella species (e.g., S. enteritidis, S. cholera suis), an occasional person may develop a systemic infection. Although there is little evidence that other species of salmonella isolated in association with food poisoning produce systemic infection, the possibility of such infections is sufficient reason for condemning such an approach to the problem. In the case of food poisoning agents such as salmonella, which are associated with infection rather than intoxication, there may be some valuable information collected with reference to the development of agglutinins or other immune bodies in patients recovering from attacks of the disease. The interpretation of low agglutinin titers is unsatisfactory. In all cases where the agglutination test is employed the limitations of the test should be borne in mind, and the possibility of previous exposures or immunizations should be considered. It is well known that in mild attacks of gastrointestinal illness caused by salmonella, slight or no rise in agglutinin titers may be found in the sera of patients during convalescence.

Guest exhibits repeat purchase behaviour from a service provider, possesses a positive, long-lasting attitude and disposition towards a service provider (Gremler & Brown, 1996). From the view of Oliver (1999), Guest patronage is defined as a deeply held commitment to repurchase a firm’s products at the expense of a competitor’s offering. Seock (2009), described patronage as the repeat purchase behaviour at a particular store for either the same products or any other products. From the views of the aforementioned authors it shows that the survival of any business is a function of the rate of patronage. This reflects the view of Ogwo & Igwe (2012) that the main reason for establishing a business is to create customers.

1.2     Statement Of Problem

Food poison has happen to be a major problem to the society, mostly to the eateries and fast food joints, any open place where eatable food are prepare and sold too guest. There are many ways that food poisoning can occur and has effect on guest patronage, being aware of the causes is an important step to prevention. Understanding that there are different types of food poisoning can increase our awareness of the safety issues concerning the purchase and use of food. The study of food safety has been dominated by a microbiological approach, however, in many countries cases of foodborne disease are at record levels.Given the fact that it is impossible to investigate all aspects and situational factors at the same time, the study is going to limit the empirical part to critical issues identified in relation to the implications of food poisoning.  The topic of effect of food poisoning has not been explicitly examined in the hospitality literature and filling this gap ought to mutually benefit academia and industry professionals. The researchers have discovered that most of this food after a test on its sample happens to have virus types of food poisoning agents in them and comparing it with most of the food prepared at individual homes. Due to this it cut the attention of the researcher to carry out this study, for more details causes of this food poisoning and its effect on guest patronage.


  • Research Question
  1. To what extent is food hygiene is important to guest patronage?
  2. To what extent does creating awareness can have effect on food poisoning to the body system and for good living?
  3. What are the possible means and methods for preventing food poisoning and its outbreak in catering establishment?
  4. To what extent food poison has effect on guest patronage in catering establishment.





1.4. Objective Of The Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. To identity the possible means and methods for preventing food poisoning and its outbreak in catering establishment.
  2. To identify the effect of food poison on guest patronage in catering establishment.
  3. Ascertain the importance of food hygiene to guest patronage.
  4. To create awareness on the effect of food poisoning to the body system and for good living.

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following hypotheses will be tested:

H01:     Food hygiene does not have significant effect on guest patronage.

H02:     Creating awareness does not have significant effect on food poisoning to the body system and for good living.

Ho3:      Means and methods for preventing food poison do not have significant effect on catering establishment.

Ho4:      Food poison does not have effect on guest patronage in catering establishment.


1.6    Significance Of The Study

This research work is significantly important to the society and entire humans. This research will expose if not all, every source of food poisoning and the means of preventing them, this research work will also create the awareness of the impending danger of food poisoning to the human body mechanism / system.


1.7.   Scope and limitation Of The Study

Since it’s impracticable to carry out the study in all catering establishment in Nigeria therefore, the scope of the research will be centeredon some selected catering establishment in Lagos State.



1.8. Definition Of Terms

  • Poisons: poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
  • Food: Food is any substance that people or animal eat or drink or that plants absorb to maintain life and growth.
  • Bacteria – Bacteria are found in all foods. Most are killed by high temperatures, but some form toxins which may or may not be killed by heat.
  • Calibration – the process of standardizing a temperature monitoring instrument to ensure that it will measure within a specific temperature range in which the instrument is designed to operate.
  • Chemicals – Chemical food borne illnesses are among the most deadly. Chemicals and other “natural” toxins formed in food include agents such as scombrotoxin and ciguatoxin. Store cleaning supplies in a different area away from stored food.
  • Food poisoning: Food poisoning is an illness caused by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with viruses, bacteria, toxins, parasites, or chemicals.
  • Cross-contamination – Cross-contamination is when bacteria spread between food, surfaces or equipment.
  • Detergent – A chemical used to remove grease, dirt and food, such as washing-up liquid.
  • Disinfectant – A chemical that kills bacteria. Check that surfaces are clean of grease, dirt and food before you use a disinfectant. Chemicals that kill bacteria are sometimes called germicides, bactericides or biocides.


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Full Project – Effect of food poisoning on Customers patronage in catering establishment